Task quality. The most important tool that will

Task 1

Question 1

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Projects, usually, are
categorized into three different types: market driven, change driven and crisis
driven, based on their respective functions and usages. By definition, change driven
projects are expected to meet certain goals in order to change operation to
match the environment; crisis driven projects are usually anticipated to
response to urgent situations, such as the evacuation of a terrible natural
disaster. The project in task 2, in my opinion and based on the Managing
Projects (2014, p7), should be defined as market driven project, which uses new
technologies to produce products that meets the market needs to increase
competitiveness. Furthermore, this project, as addressed in task 2 briefing
that it is partially considered by the company as a response to the effects of
globalization, should be categorized as market driven project.

Question 2

Defined by Project
Management Institute (2013, p51), “Project Scope Management includes the
processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required,
and only the work required, to complete the project successfully”. The scope statement
should first include project justification or the benefit of building a new site
and introducing new technologies; second, product description that briefly
documents the characteristics of the product; third, the deliverables:
sub-products or tools will be used to make the product successful; fourth,
project objectives which include cost, schedule, and quality. The most
important tool that will be used in to show the sub-division of the scope of
work is a Work Breakdown Structure. A Work Breakdown Structure defined by Pinto
and Jeffrey (2015, p173) is “a process that sets project’s scope by breaking
down its overall mission into a cohesive set of synchronous, increasingly
specific tasks.” In other words, WBS helps the project team understand the
steps and details that are required to make sure the completion and success of
this project.

Question 3

              Gantt
charts are an easy method to present beginning and end of a project. It also
helps managers to schedule different tasks and track the progress of the entire
project. The advantages of creating and using a Gantt chart is that it helps
managers monitor and control the progress of the project because Gantt chart
shows prerequisites for each separate activity. It helps managers set
priorities, notice what needs to be done first in order to continue the
progress, and make changes to the preset schedule and plan. By identifying a
critical path— “series of interdependent activities of a project, connected end
to end” (Pinto, 2015, p332), managers can determine the shortest total length
of the project. By looking at the critical path, managers will clearly see what
tasks need to be finished before the next dependent one can start, so if a
critical task cannot be completed on time, the whole project will be delayed,
vice versa.

Question 4

       Generally
speaking, the success of a project must be based on the consideration of key
factors that define the very nature of a project (Pinto, 2015, p36).

Time—can the project be finished on time or even
earlier than expected

Budget—did the cost meet our estimation or budget

Quality—whether the outcome of the project meets the
specifications of the requirements

Scope–
work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result
with the specified features and functions

Defining success of a
project can be hard sometimes, since different people will take different
elements into account. Therefore, comparing the future outcome of the project
(products or services) with time, budget, and quality all combined together is
probably the easiest way for the determination.

 

Question 5

        Using risk management, which is a four-stage
process—identification, analysis, mitigation, and control and documentation (Pinto,
2015, p245), can be helpful. First, management team must know what the risk
could be and what might cause them to happen. Second, a risk impact matrix
should be constructed to reflect all identified project risks, each prioritized
according to the probability of its occurrence (Pinto, 2015, p248) in order to
have a general idea of the risk likelihood and consequences. Third, after
analyzing the risks, use different strategies to transfer—for example
liquidation; minimize—reduce the damage to minimum; accept the risk if its
damage is minor and if it is not avoidable; or share risks by bring in
investments or contracts that legally require risk sharing. Finally, use
control and documentation system to classify and codify various risks for
referencing. This helps managers make quick and effective decisions if similar
events occur in the future (Managing Projects, p127).

Question 6

       In order
to make sure that project in task 2 is completed successfully on-time and
within budget, project evaluation, monitoring and control method should be
implemented. This method allows management team stay on top of a project’s
changing status as it moves through different life cycles toward its completion
(Pinto, 2015, p453). First method can be used is milestone analysis. Milestones
of a project represent significant stage completion during the process of the
project. It can motivate the project team, make changes to meet new objectives,
help coordinate schedules with suppliers and vendors, notify other team members
to begin their part, and develop a better overall view of the project. Another
method is called tracking Gantt charts. By doing so, project team can
constantly update project’s status by linking task completion to the schedule
baseline. Tracking Gantt charts helps project management team monitor specific
activity starting and ending date, thus make adjustments to ensure project can
be finished on time, if necessary. Now more and more companies use EVM—earned
value management, to monitor and control their projects, because it is believed
that it is necessary to consider the impact of time, cost, and budget all
together to determine the current status of a project. Unlike other methods, EVM
provides integrated information for managers to have a better understanding of
the current situation and to determine what changes have to be made (Pinto,
2015, p460).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TSK Bearings Project
Management Report

Introduction

       To and
increase automotive industry competitiveness, TSK Bearings Ltd has decided to introduce
new technology and machinery, transferred from Asia, into a manufacturing site
within the UK as part of a strategy of expansion. This project must be
completed by March 2018 with a 12 million GBP budget including the purchase and
building of a manufacturing site, and training and recruitment of team members
for the success of project completion and of new technology implementation. In
the report, project life cycle—concept, development, implementation, and
termination—along with management skills, will be the main theory used to
explain and describe essential activities, during the management process,
required to successfully manage this new initiative, ensuring that it is
on-time, and within budget.

 

Concept
Stage

1.    
Defining objectives

In this stage the entire team
need to get a basic idea of the project’s objectives. First thing to start with
as a manager is to have a clear understanding of the objective which is to make
sure that the building of new manufacturing site and the transfer of new
technology will be accomplished within the time and budget limitations with
specific quality requirenment. At the same time, opinions or anticipations of stakeholders
or owners of this project must also be taken into consideration, because the
difficulty of achieving total success derives from the hardship of the
objectives and the requirements of many different groups of stakeholders for
the project (Maylor, p76). For example, some stakeholders emphasize more on the
short-term rate of return, others may focus on long term development of the
company. It is important to balance and finalize, and have a specific and clear
direction that members can work towards, otherwise project may fail during its
process. This project does not only serve the purposes of catching up with new
production technology. This project “establishes a sense of what the
organization hopes to accomplish or what top managers hope it will become at
some point in the future (Pinto, 2015, 59),” because as mentioned in the task 2
brief, it considers expanding production capacity as its organizational
strategy for the future.

2.    
Management team and required skills

Quality of a team
determines how successful can a project be. In other words, team members and
teamwork is crucial to project management. We must work within teams, and we must build our teams in
such a way that members can and will work together cooperatively to complete
the project. An effective team could be described as any group of people who
must significantly relate with each other in order to accomplish shared
objectives (Michael, 2008). Team building should start as early in the project
life cycle as possible—in the concept stage, because the performances of everything
that comes up in the following stages will be based on the efficiency and
effectiveness of the team.

The success of a team can be influenced by
two important factors: leadership and individual skills and attitudes. Addressed
by Harvey Maylor (2011, 268), “leadership involves the influencing of others
through the personality or actions of the individual”. Manager is the dynamic,
life-giving element in every business. Without his or her leadership, the
materials and labor of production remain what they are and never become
products. Manager leads the team by obtaining resources for the team,
motivating team members, having a vision for the project, and communicating
with team members (Pinto, p139). As the manager for this project, I will need
to be familiar with each member’s capability, and at the same time build up a
relatively good communication channel with each member. This can facilitate
appointing personnel to separate activity when work breakdown structure is
introduced. For individual team members, they are required to train in Asia for
potentially 12 months to gain knowledge, experience and assist the
implementation of the new technology. Since team members are to be recruited
from existing company staff with some members recruited externally, as
mentioned in the task 2 brief, cooperation between internal and external
members. I, as the manager of this project, play important in making sure our
team is fully functional without any conflicts between team members.

3.    
Cost
estimation

Nothing can be done
without sufficient resources. Within limited budget (12 million pounds),
manager of this project must devise an estimation of required resource as sophisticated
as possible. Resource limitation, as one of the constrain, includes both money
and people. Since we already have existing team members, initial project cost
estimation and budgeting—the financial part—are extremely important elements in
the project. It is essential to estimate cost before the project starts,
because it creates a reasonable budget baseline for the project and identify
project resources as (Pinto, p279). Cost estimation also relates to scheduling
or time management, because “if necessary, additional resources will be added
to the project to hit critical launch window (Pinto, p423).” Meanwhile, cost
over estimation should be avoided. If estimation exceeds actual resources
required for the project, wastes will be generated, thus leading to less profit
or even potential failure.

After full
assessing the activities mentioned above and determined that the project is
feasible, manager need to obtain approval for the next stage, which is the
development stage.

 

Development Stage

1.    
Development
scope baseline

A scope baseline is a
document that provides a summary description of each component of the project’s
goal, including basic budget, end product quality, and schedule information for
each activity. Scope baseline shows detailed goals for the team members to
focus on. It reflects a team’s best effort in creating the documentation and
approval of all important project. Creation of the scope baseline is the final
step in the process of laying out all pre-prepared knowledge about this
project, in which each sub-activity of the project has been identified and
given its control parameters of cost and time table (Pinto, p173). The
establishment of scope baseline not only set a specific objective for the team
to achieve, but also serves as a tool for monitoring and control in the future.
By looking at various activities and their requirements and specifications,
manager will be able to identify and make adjustments during the process to
determine whether the project is working toward its success.

2.    
Budgeting

Even though cost
estimation gives us a general idea of how much resources are required in
achieving project objectives, budget development identifies the detailed
resources, the project’s goals, and the timetable that allows an organization
to achieve those goals. A
budget helps in planning actual activities by making managers to consider how
the situations might change and what changes should be made, and by encouraging
managers to consider problems before they show up. It also helps to organize
the activities of the company by making managers to carefully check the relationships
between their own tasks and those of other departments of the company. In this
project, activity-based costing method should be implemented. It assigns cost
first to activities and then to the project based one each project’s use of
resources (Pinto, p296). In this project, budget can be separated into two
parks: new manufacturing site, and team member training and new technology
transformation. Within the 12 million pounds project budget, resources should
be allocated effectively into each individual activity, such as purchase of
construction material, labor cost, purchase of new machinery, etc. The entire
project team need to be familiar with respective cost of each activity to
optimize limited resources, because the implementation of monitoring and
controlling can be much easier if any potential event occurs that may benefit
or harm the project,

3.    
Work breakdown
structure

Work breakdown structure is a deliverable-oriented grouping
of project elements which organizes and defines the total scope of projects
(Pinto, p173). Work breakdown structure provides management team with a clear
view of how many individual activities are needed for the completion of the entire
project. Each sub-activity represents an increasingly detailed description of a
project elements. After creating a work breakdown structure, team members can
be appointed to be responsible for each task, and cost can be allocated to
different activities, which helps determine and make adjustments to budget
during the process. Furthermore, work breakdown structure can facilitate the
creation of schedule by using Gantt charts and identifying critical path for
different activities. Work breakdown structure can be crucial to the project,
because a poorly constructed WBS can result in
adverse project outcomes including ongoing, repeated project re-plans and
extensions, unclear work assignments, scope creep or unmanageable, frequently
changing scope, budget overrun, missed deadlines, and unusable new products or
delivered features (Brotherton, 2008).

4.    
Assessing risks

Risk analysis and management is a very
important project management part to make sure that the least number of
surprises occur while the project is during its process. While we can never
predict the future with certainty, we can apply a simple and streamlined risk
management process to predict the uncertainties in the projects and minimize
the occurrence or impact of these uncertainties (Lavanya, 2008). However, there’s
a problem in assessing risks is that risks are possible future events that have
not yet occurred, thus their probability of occurrence can only be estimated
(Hillson, 2004). For example, the possibility of natural disaster that may
delay the construction of new site cannot be determined, even though previous
weather data will be taken into account. Therefore, when assessing risks, we
need to take precaution, because overestimate the possibility of risks may
discourage team members and allocate unnecessary resources for response plan.

Implementation Stage

1.    
Organization communication

As we mentioned before,
communication within the management team is extremely important to make sure
that the project is on its right track, organization communication need to be emphasized
at the same time. The project of a company, in this case building a new
production facility, needs cooperation within the entire company to ensure its
success. First of all, in order to make sure every step taken during the
process of successfully accomplishing the project, employees of the entire
company need to be able to work together smoothly without any conflicts or
arguments. Trust between members or managers from different departments can create
a sense of transparency. Where keeping employees in the dark can result in
resentments, tension, and a feeling of not needed in the organization, which
may lead to consequences no one anticipates. Good organizational communication
can also facilitate changes or adjustments that must be made during this
implementation stage.

2.    
Scheduling

The project needs to be
completed by the end of march 2018 with a 12 months team member training for
knowledge and transfer of the new technology of new machinery. Gantt charts and
critical path should be used as main techniques for coming up a sophisticated
schedule. Gantt charts are an easy method to present beginning and end of a
project. The advantages of creating and using a Gantt chart is that it helps
managers monitor and control the progress of the project because Gantt chart
shows prerequisites for each separate activity. It helps managers set
priorities, notice what needs to be done first in order to continue the
progress, and make changes to the preset schedule and plan. By identifying a
critical path— “series of interdependent activities of a project, connected end
to end” (Pinto, 2015, p332), managers can determine the shortest total length
of the project. By looking at the critical path, managers will clearly see what
tasks need to be finished before the next dependent one can start, so if a
critical task cannot be completed on time, the whole project will be delayed,
vice versa.

3.    
Monitoring and control

During the implementation
stage, each individual activity need to be carefully checked before the project
keeps going. Project performances must be monitored and measured regularly to
identify variances from the original plan. This procedure involves cost
management, quality management, and risk management and so on. To make sure
everything goes with the plan, several techniques need to me introduced:
project s-curve, milestone analysis, and tracking Gantt charts. The project
S-curve represents the typical form of such a relationship. Milestone analysis
signals the completion of important project steps, motivate the project team,
and offer points at which to reevaluate client needs and any potential change
requests (Pinto, p455). If time and cost spend are not properly monitored, the
project may be dragged without regarding the schedule, which in turn results in
over budgeting, waste of resources, and bad quality. Poor monitoring and control
of a project could negatively impact the project’s objective according to the
original management plan. ‘

 

Termination
Stage

In this stage, the project
will be completed and transferred to the company for production with new
technology. Due to the characteristics of this project, the new production
facility will be integrated within the organization’s existing structure following
the conclusion of the project (Pinto, p500). The project team need to first finalize
all the outstanding contracts and payments, such as construction contracts and
material purchase expenses; second, transfer any remaining responsibilities,
since the new site and machinery should no longer be under the team’s care;
third, reassign the project team, including firing external employees and
sending back employees within the company; and finally, make sure to record all
the results of the project and make recommendations for future projects in
order to improve and avoid risks and mistakes.

 

Conclusion

The purpose of this report
is to outline the basic and essential elements to ensure the success of this
project. We apply the 4 stages of project life cycle—concept, development,
implementation, and termination—to guide all the necessary steps that must be
taken. In each stage, there are several crucial activities addressed in detail,
even though not every one of them is listed. From the beginning of the project,
every activity must be carefully planned, operated, monitored and controlled.

For this project, I would
pay major attention to the monitor and control portion. Since a good management
plan cannot guarantee perfect results, thus monitor and control will play a very
important role in the process, because it relates all the aspects, such as cost
and budget, quality of the new plant and future products, and required labor
skills, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

List of references

Harvey maylor. 2011. Project management. Harlow: Financial
Times Prentie Hall.

University of Sunderland.
2014. Managing Project. Wordhouse
Ltd, Reading, UK.

Project Managing
Institute. 2000. A Guide to the Project
Management Body of Knowledge. Project Management Institute, Inc.

Pinto, Jeffrey K. 2015. Project Management: Achieving Competitive
Advantage. Pearson Education.

Thomas, M., Jacques, P. H., Adams, J. R.,
& Kihneman-Wooten, J. (2008). Developing an effective project: planning and
team building combined. Project Management Journal, 39(4), 105–113. URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmj.20079. 10 Jan, 2018.

Brotherton, S. A., Fried, R. T., &
Norman, E. S. (2008). Applying the work
breakdown structure to the project management lifecycle. Paper presented at
PMI® Global Congress 2008. Project Management Institute.

Lavanya, N. & Malarvizhi, T. (2008). Risk analysis and management: a vital key to
effective project management. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2008. Project Management
Institute.

Hillson, D. & Hulett, D. T. (2004). Assessing risk probability: alternative
approaches. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2004. PA: Project
Management Institute.