Summary was used to conceptualize beliefs using a

Summary

In
Australia, young drivers aged 17–24 years, and especially males, have the
highest risk of being involved in a deadly crash. Examination of young drivers’
beliefs allows for a greater understanding of their relationship in risky
behaviors, for example, a speeding, beliefs are related to intentions, the
antecedent to behavior. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to
conceptualize beliefs using a scenario-based survey distributed to licensed
drivers (N = 398). The survey measured individual’s beliefs and intentions to
speed in a specific situation. Consistent with a TPB-based approach, the
beliefs of those with low intentions to speed were compared with the beliefs of
those with high intentions with such evaluations conducted separately for men
and women. Overall, significant differences in the beliefs held by low and high
intenders and for both women and men were found. Specifically, for women, it
was found that high intenders were significantly more likely to identify
advantages of speeding, less likely to identify disadvantages, and more likely
to be encouraged to speed on aware and improperly signed roads than women low
intenders. Women, however, did not differ in their opinions of support from
friends, with all women reporting some level of disapproval from most friends
and all women reporting approval to speed from their male friends. The results
for men shown that high intenders were significantly more likely to speed on
aware and improperly signed roads as well as having greater opinions of support
from all friends, except those friends with whom they worked. Low and high
intending men did not differ in their opinions of the advantages and
disadvantages of speeding, with the exception of feelings of excitement whereby
high intenders reported speeding to be more exciting than low intenders. The
findings are discussed in terms of how they may directly inform the content of
mass media and public education campaigns aimed at encouraging young drivers to
slow down.

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Literature
review

As
an average for 17 Saudi Middle Eastern occupants’ dies on the country’s streets
each day, a report card Toward the Kingdom’s general directorate of movement
needs to be uncovered. This news goes following the planet wellbeing
association discovered Saudi Arabia on need the world’s most elevated amount
from maintaining deaths from way accidents, which Right away make up the
country’s vital reason for death for grown-up guys age-old 16 to 36. 4 In
this study found Road traffic injuries are the most cause of loss of disability-adjusted
life years for males and females of all ages in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We
surveyed 5,235 Saudi men aged 15 years or older. Results among Saudi males,
71.7% reported having had a driver’s license, but more than 43% of unlicensed
males drove a vehicle. This hazard decreased among the more educated, current
smokers, and those who are physically active.?Up to 94.9% and 98.5% of respondents reported
not wearing a seat belt in the front, and the back-passenger seats,
respectively. This study calls for aggressive monitoring and enforcement of
traffic laws. 1 in this study they observe drivers in Riyadh. However,
instead of improving safety, driving through roundabouts in Riyadh can be a
risky experience as many drivers do not follow regulations. Unfortunately, no
official statistics exist on accidents or violations at roundabouts and no
studies have been done to measure this problem. Results revealed that the
percentage of drivers rupturing at least one traffic regulation is
approximately 90% of all drivers driving through these rotors, with leaving
without flashing and entering the rotors without giving way is the most
frequent violation types. Survey results from 384 respondents showed that there
is a lack of information among most drivers on roundabout driving regulations
and that driver training and licensing process does not include enough
information related to this matter. Finally, practical suggestions as for how
to tackle this issue in terms of education, training and policing are given.
2 Drivers who are young, female, those with lower levels of education or
lower incomes understand the signs significantly worse than drivers who are
older, male, with higher levels of education or higher incomes. 3

Intervention/program proposal

Propose of this program to educate
people about dangers of speed driving and prevent injuries during the driving.
Target populations are all young males and females age 17-24 years drive a car
in Saudi Arabia, I choose this population because they like to speed and drift
and its most cause of die among young Saudi men. Driving in Saudi Arabia is
exciting for some and frustrating for others. Also, they need entertainment,
adventure, excitement and enforce them to follow role and regulation.

Driver Intervention Program

The program takes almost 1 hour
and is usually held one day on weekday evenings. People who are obsessed
driving at high speed are threatened to take his/her license.

1- Who must attend the Program?

Drivers aged 17-24 years who have
broken the conditions of their Saudi Arabia Learner’s Provisional License and
has been subsequently disqualified from driving. The conditions state that
drivers must not: exceeding the speed limit by more than 10 km/h or drive
without License on the vehicle. Moreover, drivers must carry their license
while driving.  A maximum speed limit of
80 km/h applies to learners and 100 km/h to provisional drivers. Even if a
driver successfully appeals against their punishment of license
disqualification, they must still attend the program.

2- Program plan 

The program involves interactive
small group discussions led by two organizers. These have been recruited from a
wide variety of fields and are not necessarily road safety specialists. They
include people with a permanent disability as a result of a crash, others with
an interest in road safety, and police officers. The maximum number of
offending drivers attending each session is restricted to 12. During the
majority of the session, the group is divided into two smaller groups so that
each organizer has no more than 6 participants in a group. Rather than having
authority figures lecture young drivers on road safety, the strategy behind
this program is for young drivers to find their own need for attitudinal or
behavioral changes and draw their own conclusions as to how they might change.
It is believed that the process of placing young driver decisions under
personal control will make them more motivated for attitudinal or behavioral
change. This strategy is also intended to enhance the young driver
self-efficacy, that is, to perceive they have the opportunity and resources to
perform the behavior. This perception is thought to facilitate behavioral
change. In order to achieve these intended outcomes, the organizer’s role is to
encourage participants to express their views and discuss road safety issues in
a ‘friendly, supportive and non-threatening environment’. Organizers are
directed to guide debate on the issues within the structured program but not
impose their own beliefs and values or patronize participants. Participants are
encouraged to conceptualize issues through their own experiences and frame of
reference so that they question their own driving behavior and consider the risk
and consequences of crashing. To encourage open discussion and debate,
participants are reassured that all conversations within the program remain
confidential to the group present.

3- Program content

The main aim of this program is to
reduce young driver crash involvement by challenging young drivers to think
about the potential risk and consequences of crashes and question their own
sense of strength. I choose the Social Cognitive Theory for this
program.

 

1.    
Reciprocal
determinism: Encourage participants to express
their views and discuss road safety issues in a ‘friendly, supportive and
non-threatening environment’. Organizers are directed to guide debate on the
issues within the structured program but not impose their own beliefs and
values or patronize participants.

2.    
Behavioral
capability: The fact that young drivers are
over-represented in crashes is presented to participants using several graphs
depicting crash statistics. Participants must then identify why they think
young drivers are over represented in crashes and discuss the causes of young
driver crashes.

3.    
Expectations: The social norms and rationalisations for certain
behaviors leading to young driver crashes are debated. Speeding behaviour is
usually discussed and when time permits, fatigue and/or inexperience. Issues
explored include the context in which the behaviour is perceived to be safe
and, alternatively, dangerous; the influence of peers; and the potential
strategies to avoid engaging in the behaviour.

4.    
Self-efficacy: Crash Damages Drivers must be aware about the crash
consequences and drive carefully. They have to think about their family and
personal loss as well.

5.    
Observational
learning: Prior to the commencement of the
Driver Intervention Program session, participants are asked to rate their skill
as a driver. In the final section of the program, the results from the
self-assessment of driving ability are discussed, while reinforcing that young
drivers are not invulnerable to crash involvement.

6.    
Reinforcements: As kind of motivation and support, we may embrace those
people who have these type of passion and drive talent and dew their attention
to practice it and improve their skills in a safe and equipped place as Reem
& Dirab Racetrack. I believe if we take it as a serious business and invest
in those talents, one day we may come out with a number of champions rally
drivers.

 

The strategy for this program is
not to lecture young drivers but to encourage them to voluntarily change their
attitudes or behaviors. “It is not the role of the organizer to describe right
from wrong or appropriate from inappropriate. Likewise, issues relating
directly to road safety initiatives and programs should be treated in a neutral
manner. Remember, the aim of the program is to encourage young drivers to confront
the potential reality and consequences of the crash and to have them question
their own risk-taking and sense of strength.”