Save the Green Revolution. Worst is the fact

Save
the yields and food quality would be an integral aspect of my research, if I
would have a hi-tech and fully furnished laboratory with unlimited access. To
define it more concrete my research goal would be: creating of climate
change-resilient crops, which can withstand broad-spectrum stresses such as heat,
cold, drought, salinity, flood, submergence and pests, thus helping to deliver
increased productivity.

 

The human population is increasing so
fast that it is outgrowing the feeding capacity of the Green Revolution. Worst
is the fact that we cannot increase arable land in a scenario where we want to
preserve natural biodiversity. Moreover global warming, changes in rainfall
patterns and other extreme weather conditions contribute to the yields reduction
as well as food price increasing, which could lead to social unrest and famine
in certain areas. Furthermore climate conditions may promote attack of
pathogens and pests on crops.  And as
some researches showed, increasing level of CO2 emissions reduce the
nutritional quality of many crops and some crops may even become toxic due to
changes in the chemical composition of their tissues (Dwivedi et al., 2013).  

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Therefore, it is of a big importance
to create new crop species, which would be stable to changing climate
conditions as well be capable to adopt to them, playing crucial role in
ensuring food and nutritional security.

Applying genetic engineering-based
approaches or molecular breeding strategies may help to achieve this goal. Genetic engineering allows direct
transfer of beneficial genes or manipulation of existing genes in the crop of
interest for generating expected phenotypes. However genetic modification is a
quite controversial issue and remains in a number of countries rather
unaccepted. Due to that, molecular breeding may be better tool for crop
improvement. Genomics tools provide rapid identification and selection of novel
beneficial genes and their controlled incorporation into novel germplasm. Advances
in plant genomics contribute to better understandings of crop diversity at
species and gene levels, and offer DNA markers to accelerate the pace of
genetic improvement.

Huge impact
on crop’s growth and development has temperature. In some areas the amount of
precipitation is very low and as result strong decrease in yields and crop
quality, which may also cause an adverse effect in human health. But there are
already a lot of researches have been done and some heat-resistant cultivars of
cowpea, common bean, tomato and Pima cotton have been developed.

Unfortunately
it is not that easy and most of the time quite challenging as it is diffucult
to predict the impact of climate change on crop’s resistance and is likely to
be variable depending on the crop and environment but genomics-assisted
breeding already proved it is effectivity and are very important and efficient
tool to support crop’s growth and ensure food safety all around the world.