[Name] INTRODUCTION.. 4 AIM… 5 THEORY.. 6 Nervous

 

Name 
CL/HNDEEENG/09/26
2018/02/26
 
 

    
    

Contents
ACKNOWLEGDEMEN.. 4
ABSTRACT.. 4
INTRODUCTION.. 4
AIM… 5
THEORY.. 6
Nervous
system.. 7
The central
nervous system.. 8
The
Peripheral nervous system.. 8
Neuron. 8
Motor
neurons. 9
SENSORY
NEURONS. 10
ASSIGNMENT
TASK FLOW… 11
MATERIAL
& APPARATUS. 12
TASK.. 13
Task 01 – EMG Capture. 13
Task 02:
EMG Signal Amplification. 13
Task – 03 –
Analogue filtering. 14
Task 04 –
Capture signals using Arduino. 15
Task 05
MATLAB GUI (Plotting EMG using MATLAB) 15
Task 06
Setup an experiment to measure Voltage (EMG) & Knee angle. 16
Task 07 –
Plot Voltage (EMG) vs Knee angle. 16
Task 08 –
Find the transfer function. 16
Task 09 –
Apply signal processing techniques for the captured EMG. (FFT / Signal average
/Correlation) 17
Task 10 –
Develop an algorithm to control a motor by the captured EMG.. 17
Task 11-
Write a research paper based on the results findings of your assignment 17
9.FURTHER
WORK.. 18
10.CONCLUSION.. 18
REFERENCES. 18
 

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Figure 1(CNS and PNS, 2018) 7

Figure 2 (Motor Neuron,
2018) 9

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 

The project
about INVESTIGATE EMG CHARACTERISTICS TO MOTOR CONTROL would like to declare
our honest sense of gratitude to our institution – International College of
Business & Technology (ICBT). We are acutely beholden to our lecturer Mr.
Ruwan Fernando whose help, stimulating suggestions, knowledge and encouraged us
at all times to our study and analysis
for the assignment in the pre-and while doing the assignment. Also thanks to everyone who support me to complete my
assignment.

 

ABSTRACT

This paper
provides an overview of the use of EMG. We were given tasks, many in fact. We
have to use the EMG for a prosthetic leg below the knee. The assignment tells all about it of how we convert the
signal, of how we took the signal using electrode. And how those signal from an
actual leg were copied and inserted in a prosthesis.  

INTRODUCTION

Little
electrical streams are created by muscle fibers preceding the generation of
muscle drive. These currents are created by the trading of particles crosswise
over muscle fiber layers, a piece of the signaling process for the muscle
fibers to contract.

 

The signal
called the electromyogram (EMG) can be estimated by applying conductive
components or terminals to the skin surface, or obtrusively inside the muscle.
Surface EMG is the more typical technique for estimation, since it is
non-intrusive and can be directed by staff other than Medical Doctors, with
insignificant hazard to the subject.

 

NR Sign
electromyography (EMG) indicative arrangements are exact, dependable and simple
to utilize. Counting both nerve conduction speed (NCV) and evoked potential
(EP) testing, they are appropriate to healing centers, facilities, and
versatile testing administrations. Joined with our cutting-edge programming,
gives includes that can’t be discovered somewhere else.

AIM

This assignment
aims to develop the various following skills of the learner.

·      
Capture sensory signals

·      
Signals conditioning

·      
System development

·      
Mathematical modeling

·      
New algorithm development

·      
Literature research

·      
Writing a research paper

 

THEORY

Electromyography
(EMG) is a technique used to record the signal taken by the electrode form the
body. The signals are taken yes, but what the use of it. Well, the widespread use if EMG is shown as
below.

Rehabilitation
• Post surgery/accident
• Neurological
Rehabilitation
• Physical
Therapy
• Active
Training Therapy

Medical Research
• Orthopedic
• Surgery
• Functional
Neurology
• Gait
& Posture Analysis

 

Ergonomics
• Analysis of demand
• Risk Prevention
• Ergonomics Design
• Product Certification

Sports
Science
• Biomechanics
• Movement Analysis
• Athletes Strength Training
• Sports Rehabilitation
 

 

We take the
signal but how is it sent from the body. To know that you have to have some
knowledge of the nervous system.

Nervous
system

Nervous system has
two main sections

·      
The
central nervous system (CNS)

·      
The
peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Figure 1(CNS and PNS, 2018)

 

The
central nervous system

It is made up of
the brain, the spinal cord, and optic
nerves. The main purpose is to control
the processes, movement and the sensation throughout the body.

The spinal cord
is a continuous structure which goes from the brain to the base of the skull
and down the column. The spinal cord is further divided into many branches as
well.

The Peripheral
nervous system

 The part outside the brain and the spinal
cord. The nerves in the PNS is connected to the CNS to the sensory organs such
as the eye and ear, and other organs of the body. PNS consist of the spinal
nerves and roots, and the automatic nerves. The autonomic nerves have all the
automatic functions of the body, specifically o the heart muscle. 

Neuron

Neurons have varied
sizes. For example, a sensory neuron from the fingertip
has an axon that extends the length of your arm, meanwhile, the neuron in a brain can extend only a few millimeters.

The shapes may
vary as well depending on their functions. When it comes to a neuron for sensing and a reflex action
(voluntary or involuntary) there are two:

·      
Motor
neurons

·      
Sensory
neurons

 

Motor
neurons

Figure 2 (Motor
Neuron, 2018)

Motor neurons have
a cell body on one end which controls
muscle contraction, contain an axon in the middle and dendrites on the other
end. Motor neuron carries signals from
the central nervous system to outer parts of your body.

SENSORY
NEURONS

Figure
3 (Sensory Neurons, 2018)

A sensory neuron has dendrites
on both ends, connected by a long axon with a cell body in the middle. Sensory
neuron carries signal from the outer
parts o your body into the central nervous system.

 

 

 

ASSIGNMENT
TASK FLOW

 

MATERIAL
& APPARATUS

 

TASK

Task 01 – EMG Capture

Use gel
electrode to detect EMG signals from lower limb knee joint. Do the following.
1. Conduct a literature research on

· EMG signals

· EMG electrode placements

· EMG signal frequency

· Filtering techniques

2. Place the EMG
electrodes incorrect position on the
upper limb to detect EMG variations.

Task 02:
EMG Signal Amplification

In this stage, you have to amplify the captured EMG
signal from stage 01. Do the following

1. Conduct a literature
research on bio amplifiers.

2. Built your own bio-amplifier which suits amplify the EMG signals.

 

Task – 03
– Analogue filtering

In this stage, you have to design an analog filter to remove the noise of the
captured EMG
signal.
Do the following.

1. Conduct a literature
research about noise types and frequency range of those noises
in
EMG.

2. Conduct a literature
research on noise filtering on EMG

3. Install Filter lab
software on your computer. Filter lab is
freely available at

www.microchip.com

4. Design an analog filter to remove the above-found noises of the EMG.

5. Simulate and test the
above-designed filter using OrCAD/Pspice.

6. Build and test the above-designed filter. Use 0 – to — 1000Hz (1
kHz) as per the test signals.

7. Test the designed
filter for the real captured EMG signals.

 

Task 04 – Capture signals using Arduino

In this stage what you
need to do is capture the EMG signals which you detected, amplified and
filtered from stage 01 to 03. Do the following.

1. Conduct a literature
research on capturing EMG using data acquisition

2. Conduct a literature
research on capturing EMG using Arduino

3. Conduct a literature
research on Arduino muscle sensor

4. Write an Arduino
program to capture the EMG data coming out from stage 03.

5. Built and test the
hardware to capture the EMG using Arduino.

6. Plot real time the
EMG using Arduino GUI

Task 05 MATLAB GUI (Plotting EMG
using MATLAB)

At this stage, you need to develop a MATLAB GUI to plot
and visualize the captured EMG
signals on stage 04. Do the following.

1. Conduct a
literature research on how to capture and display real-time signals from
Arduino & MATLAB.

2. Write a
MATLAB code and develop a GUI interface Arduino to capture the real
time EMG signals.

3. Capture the real-time EMG and plot that signals using
designed MATLAB GUI
(Graphical user interface).

 

Task 06 Setup an experiment to measure
Voltage (EMG) & Knee angle

In this stage, you have to set up an experiment to research and find out the relationship of
EMG voltage variations due to upper limb movement. Do the following

1.      
Setup an
experiment to measure the voltage (v) against the knee angle.

2.      
Select a
movement pattern of the lower upper limb.

3.       Measure EMG (voltage) with respect to the Knee
angle.

Task
07 – Plot Voltage (EMG) vs Knee angle

For this task, you have to plot the EMG (Voltage)
against knee angle

1.     Plot the EMG (voltage) vs Knee angle.

2.     Literature research on curve fitting on MATLAB.

3.     Best fit the curve which you plotted above.

4.     Find a mathematical expression for the above best-fitted curve.

 

Task 08 – Find the transfer function

Develop a transfer
function considering the graphs you obtained above to be used to
control
a motor. Do the following.

Consider the input and
output of the following system develop a system transfer function.

 

Task 09 – Apply signal processing techniques
for the captured EMG. (FFT / Signal average /Correlation)

At this stage, you should apply different signal
processing techniques as mentioned below. Apply the following mentioned signal
processing techniques for the recorded EMG signals.

1. FFT

2. Correlation

3. Wavelet transform

4. Any preferred other
signal processing techniques.

Task
10 – Develop an algorithm to control a motor by the captured EMG

1. Considering
all the research facts you obtained to develop
an algorithm to control a
motor using EMG signals.

2. Practically
demonstrate and evaluate the motor control using EMG.

Task
11- Write a research paper based on the results findings of your assignment

For this, you have to write a research paper based
on the experiments you conducted and the results found. A maximum participant from your end is three to
write this paper.

 

 

9.FURTHER
WORK

10.CONCLUSION

REFERENCES  

CNS and PNS. (2018).
image Available at:
http://climatereview.net/ChewTheFat/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/CNS-vs-PNS.jpg
Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.

Garden, H., Science,
L., Mind, I., and Brain, T. (2018). How
Your Brain Works. online HowStuffWorks. Available at:
https://science.howstuffworks.com/life/inside-the-mind/human-brain/brain2.htm
Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.

MedicineNet.
(2018). Definition of the Peripheral
nervous system. online Available at:
https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=8258 Accessed 25
Jan. 2018.

Motor Neuron.
(2018). image Available at:
http://media.buzzle.com/media/images-en/illustrations/human-biology/1200-42573360-motor-neuron.jpg
Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.

Cold, F.,
Health, E., Disease, H., Management, P., Conditions, S., Problems, S.,
Disorders, S., Checker, S., Interviews, E., Boards, M., Answers, Q., Guide, I.,
Doctor, F., Medications, M., Identifier, P., Interactions, C., Drugs, C.,
Pregnant, T., Management, D., Obesity, W., Recipes, F., Exercise, F., Beauty,
H., Balance, H., Relationships, S., Care, O., Health, W., Health, M., Well, A.,
Teens, H., Kids, F., Pregnant, G., Trimester, F., Trimester, S., Trimester, T.,
Baby, N., Health, C., Vaccines, C., Kids, R., Cats, H., Dogs, H., Days, A.,
Dangerous?, C., Fungus, B., Promise, ‘., Heart, S., Boards, M., Blogs, E.,
Center, N. and System, B. (2018). Central Nervous System. online WebMD.
Available at: https://www.webmd.com/brain/central-nervous-system Accessed 25
Jan. 2018.

Sensory Neurons.
(2018). image Available at:
http://humananatomylibrary.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/anatomy-of-sensory-neurons-neuron-wikipedia.png
Accessed 25 Jan. 2018.