Chapter 2: Use it or Lose it: Applying Psychology
1. A locked-in syndrome is a syndrome characterized by a lack of adequate patient response to external, including verbal, stimuli due to mimic and chewing musculature. It develops a complete loss of speech, paralysis with complete preservation of consciousness and sensitivity. It is possible to communicate with other by flashing or moving the eyes.
2. The normal function of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter is used by efferent neurons carrying messages from CNS. This primary transmitter is involved in some kinds of learning and memory. If the action of acetylcholine in the brain is blocked the person would expect certain muscular disorders or Alzheimer’s disease. Such disorders and diseases can be affected by nicotine, botulism toxin, curare, atropine, and barbiturates.
3. I would tell him about the organization of the nervous system. There is central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system divides into the autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system. The somatic nervous system carries sensory information to the brain and voluntary motor information from the brain to the muscles. The autonomic nervous system communicates with internal organs and glands. In such way, the automatic nervous system has the sympathetic division (prepares the body for fight or flight) and the parasympathetic division (brings the body back to normal function to conserve and maintain resources). The central nervous system includes brain and spinal cord. It has spinal reflexes that are simple automatic behaviors that occur without any brain involvement. In comparison to the nervous system, the endocrine system communicates through the use of hormones. The effects are slower than NT but longer lasting. There is hypothalamus, which controls the pituitary gland. It is a master gland that regulates the endocrine glands and many basic functions of the body.
4. The paralysis of the right side of the body means that left side of the brain was damaged. Left brain hemisphere communicates with the right side of the body and receives input from the right visual field. The ability of the left hemisphere is vision (words and letters), hearing (language sounds), memory (verbal memory), and language (speech, grammar rules, reading, writing, arithmetic). In this way, we can see that inability to speak can cause the damage to the left hemisphere.